The actual copyright and patent standards of the TRIPS agreement come largely from other sources. As far as copyright is concerned, the Berne Convention is the source of most OF the TRIPS provisions. The main areas in which TRIPS expands Bernese copyright provisions are the explicit protection of software and databases. Similarly, the Paris Convention provides the source of patent adhesive provisions, to which TRIPS mainly add rules of application. The Berne and Paris Conventions are managed by WIPO. Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti argue that the importance of TRIPS in the process of developing and disseminating knowledge and innovation has been overestimated by its supporters. This was supported by the FINDINGs of the United Nations that many low-protection countries regularly benefit from significant foreign direct investment (FDI).  Analysis of OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s (which extended the lifespan of drug patents by 6 years) showed that, although the total number of registered products increased slightly, the average innovation index remained unchanged.  On the other hand, J-rg Baten, Nicola Bianchi and Petra Moser (2017) find historical evidence that compulsory licensing – a key mechanism for weakening IP rights under Article 31 of TRIPS – can effectively lead to the promotion of inventions by increasing the threat to competition in areas of low competition.
They argue, however, that the benefits of weakening intellectual property rights depend heavily on the ability of governments to make a credible commitment to use them only in exceptional cases, since companies can invest less in research and development if they expect repeated episodes of mandatory licensing. Article 10 of the agreement states that “1. Computer programs, whether in the source code or in the object code, must be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention (1971). (2) The compilation of data or any other material, whether machine-readable or in any other form, constituting spiritual creations because of the choice or disposition of their content, must be protected as such.